The minimum wage battle: What makes a wage just?
Raising the minimum wage is a mitzvah.
The Rambam says that ensuring others have work that can sustain them is the highest rung on the hierarchy of tzedakah (Mattanot Aniyim, 10:7). In Judaism, tzedakah does not mean charity but justice. We rectify social wrongs and fulfill our obligations through tzedakah. By raising the minimum wage, we are enabling others who work to escape poverty. Tzedakah is all the more important when applied to a system of legislation, as the mission of the Jewish people is to perpetuate our most precious values of the good and the just into broader society. Our messianic dream is the creation of a society where Torah values are brought into the world to create a more just and holy civilization.
The disparate gap between rich and poor is one of the most troubling moral issues in America today. Much of the problem has to do with unfair wages that block social mobility. The ” target=”_blank”>Time magazine, July 24, 2009). Even then, the wage only ” target=”_blank”>the earned-income tax credit has been crucial in helping to fill the gap (aiming to benefit low-income families with children and not just all low-wage workers).
Some argue that raising the cost of labor will hurt workers, because employers will then hire fewer workers. In a few instances this may be true, but overall ” target=”_blank”>the impact on jobs is small.”
Current ” target=”_blank”>four states with a minimum wage below the federal standard, two (” target=”_blank”>five states with no minimum wage, ” target=”_blank”>One significant study looking at the food industry found that raising the minimum wage did not result in employers trimming their workforce, and dozens of studies have confirmed these conclusions. For example, ” target=”_blank”>in 2006 the Economic Policy Institute estimated that raising the minimum wage from $6.55 to $7.25 would increase consumer spending by $5.5 billion, potentially offering a much-needed boon to the economy.
A final objection to raising the minimum wage is that those who work in these largely menial jobs are teenagers who are simply trying to earn extra cash, and therefore there is no need for a wage increase. As former Labor Secretary Robert Reich pointed out, this is untrue. Among the 15 million people working in minimum wage jobs today:
• ” target=”_blank”>As Barbara Ehrenreich, who once described her vain attempt to survive on a wage (above the minimum) in “Nickel and Dimed,” wrote in 2007: “There is no moral justification for a minimum wage lower than a living wage. And given the experience of the … states that have raised their minimum wages, there isn’t even an amoral economic justification.”
Hundreds of Israeli medical residents resign
Hundreds of medical residents in Israel have resigned, leaving many Israeli hospitals shorthanded.
More than 300 residents did not show up for work on Monday, affecting hospitals throughout the country.
The residents resigned over a labor dispute; they are dissatisfied with a nine-year agreement signed between the government and the Israel Medical Association.
The State Prosecutor on Monday asked the national Labor Court to issue an injunction against the resignations, and to order the residents to return to work as they continue to negotiate for a solution.
The resignations were originally scheduled to take effect in September, but were delayed by the court. The residents then agreed to stay on until Sunday in order to get past the Yom Kippur holiday.
Many of the residents have already secured positions in other countries, Ynet reported.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu asked the residents to delay their resignations by another two weeks to allow him to help find a solution.
Baltimore’s Yeshivat Rambam day school announces closing
A Baltimore Jewish day school will close at the end of this school year.
Yeshivat Rambam, which opened about 20 years ago and taught according to the Modern Orthodox philosophy of Torah U’Maddah, or Torah and secular knowledge, will shut down in June, it announced in a statement Sunday night, the Baltimore Jewish Times reported.
The school had already announced in January that it would close its high school division in an effort to get the rest of the school on its feet financially while working to increase enrollment in kindergarten through 8th grade.
But the financial situation reportedly proved to be too much for the award-winning school.
Parents and faculty were informed of the closing at separate meetings held Sunday night, according to the newspaper.
The school has retained a community-based adolescent-family-community relations counselor to help students, faculty and parents cope with the closing.
“Rambam faced rising costs, declining enrollment and a shrinking contributor base. Financial burdens were piling up. The time came for facing reality and making tough decisions. Thus, we have called this meeting tonight to let you know that it is with great sadness that Rambam’s Board of Directors has voted to close Rambam at the end of the current academic year,” Rambam President Meyer Shields said Sunday night.
Classes will continue on a regular schedule until the end of the school year. The school will help the students find other schools to attend.
Electricity cut to Rambam’s tomb
Visitors to the tomb of Jewish scholar and philosopher Moses Maimonides have been left in the dark.
That’s because the rabbis who manage the site in the Israeli city of Tiberias neglected to pay the electric bills over a long period of time.
The Israel Electric Corp. cut electricity to the site after the mounting bills passed the $11,500 mark.
Visitors usually come to pray at the tomb around the clock. The tomb currently is closed to night visitors due to what a sign on the tomb is calling “a power glitch.”
Maimonides, known as the Rambam, was born in Spain around 1138, where he wrote famous works of Jewish law, philosophy and medicine.
He died in Cairo in 1204 and his remains were said to be reburied in Tiberias, on the banks of the Sea of Galilee.
Can we help?
My desk is coated with letters of request: Adopt an animal at the zoo; come to a gala for the Jewish food bank; plant a tree in Israel; plant a tree in Los Angeles. Feed 50 meals to homeless people. Support public radio. Support the temple building fund. Support the school PTA, the booster club, the play. Need I go on?
These bids for help come in every year at about this time, but this year they feel different. We all are facing the reality that these are really hard times — for everyone, it seems — and there’s a note of desperation in these letters, a fear of becoming destitute. In fact, it’s probably a feeling most of us share to some degree, whether when we look at our 401(k)s (don’t!), or hear from our relatives (do!), or watch friends figure out how to get unemployment checks … or talk to someone who has lost their home to foreclosure.
So this year, all those pleas for funds have to be weighed against our anxieties. And the nagging question inside us must be: Should we hold back on our giving because what we have now might not last? And when we give, whom should we give to? Who are the neediest?
In his recently released “A Code of Jewish Ethics, Volume 2: Love Your Neighbor as Yourself,” (Bell Tower), Rabbi Joseph Telushkin quotes the familiar talmudic teaching: “Charity is equal in importance to all the other commandments combined.” (Bava Bathra 9a). But Telushkin also goes on to quote Maimonides: “It is our duty to be more careful in the performance of charity than in the performance of any other positive commandment.” (Laws of Gifts to the Poor 10:1).
In our era, Telushkin points out, we equate charitable giving to cultural causes — museums, orchestras, universities — as much as to helping the poor. But it is the latter that the Bible refers to exclusively in the teachings on tzedakah. For a person in need, the Bible commands, “You shall open, yes, open, your hand to him,” and not “harden your heart nor shut your hand against your needy brother” (Deuteronomy 15:7-8). And the need for such generosity is so drilled into the Jewish soul that, as Telushkin paraphrases Maimonides, “Not giving tzedakah constitutes such cruel and un-Jewish behavior that we should question the Jewishness of one who acts in this way.”
The Shulchan Arukh assures us: “No person will become poor because of giving charity.”
So does this mean the art museum is out and the homeless shelter is this year’s beneficiary? That the temple coffers come before the school or after? What do we value most? And should we really decide? Because as we open our checkbooks this year and attempt to give back to the world, shouldn’t we consider sustenance from all angles?
High on our list, of course, should be those whose very lives depend upon our help. But this also is not a time to extinguish the many institutions that have risen up to create a civil society. The arts nourish the soul, schools nurture the potential of our youth, but they also promote the scientific and creative research that will secure our future. And the synagogue is one place where we can turn when we need caring most.
Our relationship with Israel also cannot be lost in the mix — its need for health and security doesn’t disappear while our attention is focused elsewhere.
And those animals in the zoo — should they be left out?
To be fair, aren’t times of hardship when we should be giving the most? And not just to one place?
I have a friend who runs an institute for the deaf — a place that gives the gift of communication to people who might otherwise be cut off from the world. She recently told me of a single day in the life of her institute: A check for $1 million came in from a major donor. Cause for great celebration. Then a look at the endowment showed a $1 million loss — just that same day. What do you do?
As the articles in this special Giving Guide illustrate, everyone is trying to answer all the questions I’m proposing here. And there are no easy answers.
But I would suggest this. This is the time to step up to the plate. And there are ways to do it even as we tighten our belts. We can think hard before we buy that fancy pair of shoes and get something more practical; then take that extra money left over — and give it away. Think again before we allocate fun money and find ways to share the pleasures with those who haven’t got the spare cash. We can take the bus once in a while and spend the gas savings on a person in need. Even small economies can turn into great gifts.
This is a time when, at whatever level we can, we should all continue to respond to the pleas for help from charities of all kinds — and give to our capacity, and maybe a little more. Because, as the Shulchan Arukh assures us, and as Telushkin notes, “No person will become poor because of giving charity.”
Sacrifices Address Emotion of Guilt
The theme of Parshat Tzav is korbanot, the animal sacrifices brought in the Tabernacle and, later, in the Temple.
The Rambam, in his “Guide to the Perplexed,” writes, “The purpose of sacrifices being incorporated into the Divine service of the Jewish people was to accommodate the transition of the people going from the extreme falsehood of idol worship to the extreme truth of worshipping one true God. The Jewish people had been steeped in an idolatrous culture and could only free themselves from it by utilizing the same form of animal sacrifice that they were accustomed to. Now, through strict rules and regiments, they could direct it toward the service of God.”
Unfortunately, this statement has been grossly misunderstood. The Rambam never meant to imply that korbanot were a temporary means of service, whose practice would be abandoned as soon as the Jewish people were weaned from their idolatrous ways. Noah and his sons offered korbanot after the flood; Avraham offered various sacrifices. Neither of them needed to be weaned from idolatry.
Although the concept of animal sacrifices seems foreign, almost antithetical to our notion of serving God, korbanot were offered in the Temple on a daily basis. The detailed rituals of sacrifices played an essential role in the celebration of each holiday, and various sacrifices were offered to mark significant events in the lives of people.
Korbanot obviously played a major role in our service to God. How are we to understand that role?
The ultimate way to serve God and come closer to Him is through prayer and Torah study, for those methods involve one’s heart and one’s intellect.
At the same time, we are created with physical drives, and we are therefore driven to relate to God in a physical, tangible way. Offering a korban (from the word karov, to come close) is a hands-on project.
But this very human need is not given free rein; rather, the offering of sacrifices is governed by strict regulations, in order that we tangibly relate to God in a true, proper way.
Furthermore, korbanot address the human emotion of guilt. After a person sins, it is natural to feel guilty about having done wrong, having failed to live up to expected standards of behavior.
Instead of allowing a person to wallow in guilt, to feel disappointed and disillusioned and to succumb to a sense of hopelessness, the Torah requires the sinner to bring a sacrifice. One must purchase a living animal, bring it to the Temple, confess the sin, express a firm resolve never to repeat it and then offer the sacrifice upon the altar.
These steps allow for the individual to express natural guilt in a constructive manner and for one to perfect and improve one’s character instead of being paralyzed by guilt.
Even in today’s times, in absence of korbanot, the Torah continues to challenge us to use our yetzer hatov, or good inclination, to sublimate our yetzer hara, or evil inclination, and always channel them to achieve a higher purpose, to relate to God in a way that allows us to grow, improve and attain psychological and intellectual perfection.
Steven Weil is rabbi of Beth Jacob Congregation in Beverly Hills.