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“In the beginning, there was no English version of the Hebrew Bible. As Christianity was born and the Church evolved, for centuries on end, it used a Latin translation of the Bible done by St. Jerome in the 4th century. The Vulgate was the only version of the Bible the Church of Rome sanctioned, and so it was in the churches of medieval England as well.
This began to change in the 14th century, a turbulent time in English history, which saw the Great Famine and intense social upheaval. And to top this off in Europe, the Church was in the middle of a schism.
The linguistic make up of England was very different back then: The Church clergy and civil administration communicated in Latin; the nobles – the descendants of the Normans who conquered the island in 1066 – spoke French; and at the bottom of the social heap were the poor, unlettered masses, who spoke Middle English – a version of Anglo-Saxon heavily influenced by French.”
JJ Editor's Picks
"On Christmas Eve of 1966, Paddy Roy Bates, a retired British army major, drove a small boat with an outboard motor seven miles off the coast of England into the North Sea. He had sneaked out of his house in the middle of the night, inspired..."
"The book that changed lecturer, activist, and current presidential candidate Marianne Williamson’s life, A Course in Miracles, is not available for free online, but its workbook is. You can find it on the website for the Foundation for..."
"Here are two sets of statements from far-distant opposites in the climate change debate. The first is from Naomi Klein, who in her book This Changes Everything paints a bleak picture of a global socioeconomic system gone wrong: “There is a..."
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"With the presidential campaign under way, expect to hear a lot more about a shiny new toy of progressive economic thinking, “modern monetary theory.” It seems to be the only intellectual contortion that might allow candidates to promise..."
"“We don’t want to fight y’all. We’re not trying to go to jail.” That’s what A$AP Rocky, the 30-year-old New York City rapper, can be heard saying in a video of an encounter with strangers in Sweden that has ballooned into an international crisis."
"Israel’s top officials are considering denying Reps. Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib entry to their country due to their outspoken, controversial criticism of Israel’s policy toward Palestinians, not to mention their slurs against American Jews as..."
"For most of our lives, we have been conditioned to share a piece of personal information without a moment’s hesitation: our phone number. We punch in our digits at the grocery store to get a member discount or at the pharmacy to pick up..."