Would Iranian Nukes Only Kill Jews?
Will Iran’s nukes only kill Jews?
That’s the question Palestinians should be asking themselves. Because the answer is no.
There is no way to make a nuclear bomb that just kills Jews. There is no way to “wipe Israel off the map,” as Iran President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has sworn to do in a nuclear armageddon, without wiping out the Palestinians, as well.
A nuclear fireball detonated over Jerusalem would kill a substantial fraction of the city’s half-million Jews — and the city’s quarter-million Palestinians. But not only lives would be destroyed. Next to the Kaaba in Mecca, the most sacred site to Sunni Muslims in the world is the Al Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, which comprise the Haram esh-Sharif, the noble sanctuary on top of Temple Mount.
A nuke would turn the noble sanctuary into radioactive dust. This is what Iran’s terrorist leaders are threatening to do. So all you Palestinians, all you Sunni Muslims out there, wherever you are, get the picture: Wiping Israel off the map means wiping your sacred noble sanctuary off the map, as well. It’s an inescapable package deal.
The Palestinians have more to fear from a nuclear attack on Israel than the Jews. Iran might be able to build a handful of firecracker fission (atom bomb) nukes in the 10- to 20-kiloton range. Set any of these off in an above-ground airburst to maximize lethality, and the heat fries everyone within a mile radius. The neutrons travel not much more and gamma rays much less, killing folks with radiation poisoning within a radius of less than 2 miles.
In other words, the radiation effects are very localized. Anyone 5 miles away would just get a sunburn. The greatest danger more than a few miles away is flying glass from blown-out windows caused by the shock wave. (Avoiding the flying glass was the purpose of duck-and-cover practice of diving under school desks back in the ’50s.)
Any effective nuking of Israel would thus have to score multiple detonations in Israel’s population centers. There is no way to do this in a country the size of New Jersey without devastating the Palestinian population at least as much as the Israeli.
In any nuclear attack on Israel, Iran would have to make a choice: Use its handful of bombs to hit the population centers or hit the Zechariah nuclear missile base southeast of Tel Aviv. Iran cannot do both.
It will take multiple direct hits to incapacitate Zechariah, collapsing the underground tunnels for the TELs (transporter erector launchers). These launch the Jericho-2 missile with a range of 2,000 miles carrying a nuke far more lethal than an Iranian firecracker.
Israel has at least 200, and possibly as many as 400, nuclear warheads, many of which are fusion (hydrogen bombs) in the range of 150 kilotons, many times more destructive than whatever the Iranians come up with. The Jericho-2 can easily reach Tehran or any other location in Iran. A nuclear strike by Iran upon Israel could precipitate the nuclear retaliatory annihilation of Iran.
The mullahs need to realize the name of Zechariah was chosen with a purpose for Israel’s missile base. It is Hebrew for: “God remembers with a vengeance.”
It is Sunni Muslims who need to be terrified of a nuclear Iran. And indeed, Ahmadinejad’s wipe-off-the-map bluster may be misdirection, for he must know that Israel and the Jews would survive his attack, and he and his country would not survive theirs. It is then more likely that Ahmadinejad intends to be an 800-pound Shiite nuclear gorilla, pushing around the Sunnis of the Middle East.
Sunni Saudi Arabia — hated by Iran’s mullacracy — would be defenseless. So would Sunni Jordan — hated by the mullahs. So would Dubai and the emirates. So would Kuwait. Iran is going to aim its nukes at them. They either become colonial subjects of Iran — or (get ready for this) make a deal with Israel and be placed under the protection of an Israeli nuclear umbrella.
They could try this with another nuclear neighbor, and a Sunni Muslim one at that: Pakistan. But Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal is devoted to protection from India, and it is limited (around 25 or so low-kiloton fission warheads). An Israeli umbrella may prove an irresistible option.
“We can protect you from Iran,” should be Israel’s message to Sunni Arabs from Ramallah to Riyadh. “The only price for our protection is peace between us.”
Hier, Pope Talk at Vatican
During a private audience at the Vatican, the head of the Simon Wiesenthal Center urged Pope Benedict XVI this week to lead a “coalition of the good” against international terrorism and threats from Iran.
The pope did not respond directly to the plea by Rabbi Marvin Hier, the center’s founding dean, but asserted that “Christians and Jews can do much to enable coming generations to live in harmony and respect.”
He also expressed the hope that “this century will see our world emerge from the web of conflict and violence, and sow the seeds of for a future of reconciliation, justice and peace,” according to the Vatican news service.
For his part, Hier said in a phone call from Rome, “It is my belief, that the pontiff will make his mark in standing up to terrorism. I am also certain that he wants to strengthen relations with the Jewish people.”
The delegation included 40 trustees and other lay leaders of the Wiesenthal Center from across the United States, and the pope made a point to speak to each individually. He also blessed rosary beads brought by some delegates for Catholic friends back home.
Groups Weigh Stance on Iraq
As the Bush administration seeks international support for an attack on Iraq, Jewish organizations are also crystallizing their positions.
In the next few weeks, Jewish groups are expected to meet with foreign leaders arriving in New York for the opening session of the U.N. General Assembly and anniversary commemorations of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
The American Jewish Committee (AJC) is planning to meet with leaders of more than 50 countries, including the foreign ministers of China, Russia and France. The Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations is expected to meet with the Indian prime minister, as well as with leaders of Jordan, Argentina and the European Union. B’nai B’rith International will be meeting with foreign leaders as well.
American Jewish officials will seek international support for the war on terrorism and pressure for Palestinian reform. But many conversations are expected to delve into the major issue of the day: whether to attack Iraq to head off President Saddam Hussein’s efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction.
President Bush was slated to address the General Assembly on Thursday, and was expected to make the case for a U.S. attack. But most American Jewish groups have not yet decided where they stand on Iraq.
"Our policy is not to try and detail policy or recommend strategy," said David Harris, AJC’s executive director. "Our position is to hammer away that Saddam Hussein represents a clear danger to the rest of the world and something has to be done about it."
Harris said he does not want his organization to get ahead of the Bush administration by offering advice on what should or should not be done, but will express the need for some action.
Malcolm Hoenlein, executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents, said his meetings would focus on other subjects, and that Iraq was not at the forefront of the Jewish community’s agenda. The Conference of Presidents’ members probably will not push a specific agenda on Iraq during their meetings with foreign leaders, but will gauge international opinion, Hoenlein said.
"We’re going to talk about it and we’re going to hear what they have to say," he said. He also will highlight the threat that Saddam poses, he said.
In the boardrooms and offices of most American Jewish groups, debate is continuing as to what should or should not be said on the Iraq issue. "This is a big one," Harris said. "This is not one you want to wing."
Hoenlein said he has engaged member organizations in small-group discussions about what the umbrella organization should say on the Iraq issue, and will hold a conference call with members after Bush’s U.N. speech. Hoenlein also has urged groups to have discussions within their own leadership and bring their thoughts to the table.
This approach toward formulating the Conference of Presidents’ position is unusual for the organization, which at times has been accused of taking stands without reaching a consensus of its membership, and of ignoring the viewpoints of more dovish members. Jewish leaders say the change in tactic reflects the seriousness of the issue at hand.
Rabbi Eric Yoffie, president of the Reform movement’s Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC), said he agrees that "something needs to be done" about Hussein, but is not sure what exactly. The UAHC national leadership has not taken a formal position on the issue, and broach the subject when it meets in a few weeks, he said.
It is expected that many Jewish groups ultimately will support a U.S. attack on Iraq. Many analysts believe regime change in Iraq would reduce the security threat to Israel and remove a key Palestinian ally.
The Israeli government has expressed strong support for American efforts, which is likely to boost American Jewish support. But there is considerable concern that Iraq will hit Israel with biological or chemical weapons in retaliation for any attack by the United States, and Jewish groups may be hesitant to enthusiastically support military action that puts Israelis in immediate danger.
There also is concern among Jewish groups that Israel will be pressured to restrain itself and not respond to an attack from Iraq, as the United States demanded in the 1991 Gulf War. This time, however, Israel has been adamant that it will respond if attacked.
There also is a debate as to how vocal American Jewish groups should be if they support a war. Some contend that outspoken support could lead critics to describe a U.S. attack on Iraq as a fight on Israel’s behalf — as some critics did in 1991 — and that the Jewish community would be wiser to keep quiet during the debate.
Give Peas a Chance
World leaders can’t seem to arrive at a solution to violence in the Middle East, but just maybe because they didn’t use a larger-than-life-sized corn on the cob. Kernel Corn, mascot for the vegetarian organization, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), has set off on his Middle East tour, marking the launch of PETA’s campaign, "Give Peas a Chance."
PETA believes that there is a connection between peace and vegetarianism. "If you’re sitting down to dinner and contributing to the violence against animals, you’re contributing to violence in the world," said Dan Shannon, PETA’s Vegan Campaign coordinator. "Many social movements in the world have recognized the link between the violence toward animals and people," Shannon said
This is not the first of Kernel Corn’s journeys, but it is his first international tour. To date in the Middle East, Kernel Corn has visited Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Cairo, and plans to stop next in Haifa. The program is aimed at both Israeli and Palestinian children. "It’s a very serious time … [Kernel Corn] will be handing out vegetarian food and talking to children to try to liven things up a bit," Shannon said.
PETA hopes the campaign will show children that there are small steps that they can take toward peace. For example, they can control what they put into their mouths. In addition, Kernel Corn hopes to comfort children who feel alone, showing them that there are others around the world who care about them. "It’s one step that everyone can take toward a nonviolent world," Shannon said.
Righteous Who Saved Jews Honored
Almost 60 years after they risked their lives to rescue Jews during the Holocaust, a Dutch couple and a one-time Polish partisan will be honored as Righteous Among the Nations on Sunday, Feb. 17 at the annual luncheon of the 1939 Club.
Accepting the honors, conferred by Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust remembrance authority, will be Jacek “Jack” Stocki and Hans Siegenthaler, the son of the late Hugo and Wijbrigje Siegenthaler.
Stocki (also known as Stocki-Sosnowski) was a 23-year-old jeweler and goldsmith in Krakow. After the Nazis occupied the city, Stocki paid a large bribe to spring one Jewish acquaintance from a Gestapo prison and then led the friend and another young Jew in an escape to Hungary.
When the German army took over Budapest, Stocki paid for surgical operations to “uncircumcise” the two Jewish men, which allowed them to pass as gentiles when confronted by the SS. Later, Stocki returned to Poland to fight as a partisan and then with the Polish army in exile.
Now an 82-year-old resident of Woodland Hills, Stocki cited his mother’s influence for his attitude toward Jews.
“My mother was a devout Catholic, who demanded from her children both discipline and altruism,” Stocki said. “She insisted that we help others in distress, and she was the first to help Jews after the Nazis came.”
Following the German conquest of Holland in 1940, the Siegenthalers, who lived in the town of Enschede, took in Annie Sanders Van Dam, a Jewish woman from Amsterdam, and hid her throughout the war, while her son found refuge in another house.
In addition, the Siegenthalers gave shelter to several other Jews. Their son will accept the honor for his late parents.
The younger Siegenthaler, a resident of Northridge, said that while his father was born Catholic and his mother Protestant, neither practiced their religions.
“They had Jewish friends and did what they could. There was nothing to discuss,” he said.
The native countries of the honorees, Poland and Holland, saw higher proportions of their Jewish populations slaughtered than any other countries in Europe, but also provided, by a wide margin, the largest number of gentile rescuers.
Of the more than 19,000 Righteous Among the Nations listed by Yad Vashem, 5,632 were Poles and 4,464 were Dutch.
At the ceremony on Sunday, Israeli Deputy Consul General Zvi Vapni will present short video clips he created of the honorees deeds, while Consul General Yuval Rotem will confer the Yad Vashem medals and certificates.
Also to be feted at the noon luncheon at the Beverly Hills Hotel will be filmmaker Jon Avnet for his docudrama, “Uprising,” commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto revolt.
For information, call Sonia Rosenwald at (310) 276-5401. — Tom Tugend, Contributing Editor
Educating the Educators
On Feb. 7, The Anti-Defamation League’s (ADL) “The Holocaust and the Media: The Role of the Media in Implementation of the Holocaust” and the L.A. Museum of the Holocaust’s 19th annual “Music as Survival, Music as Resistance, Music as Response” aimed to provide teachers with the tools necessary to inform their students about the Holocaust from several different perspectives.
Noted historian and author Dr. Michael Berenbaum was the first speaker in the “Holocaust and the Media” series that will continue every Thursday through March 7 at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR). Berenbaum’s lecture and film, “The Holocaust: The Untold Story,” delved into the American media’s failure to accurately report on the war against the Jews until it was too late.
The event was co-sponsored by the ADL, Survivors of the Shoah History Foundation, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and HUC-JIR.
Completion of the series will qualify the 17 LAUSD teachers in attendance for one unit toward a salary increase.
United Teachers of Los Angeles, the LAUSD and the Bureau of Jewish Education hosted the program at the L.A. Museum of the Holocaust. Featuring speakers, musicians and interactive sessions, the program focused on the idea that music has long been a tool of Jewish survival.
“Music is very important,” said Masha Loen, executive secretary and coordinator for the museum. “It has always been a part of Jewish life. Even while hopelessness weighed upon the Jews during the Holocaust, rabbis instructed Jews to pray and sing.”
Loen and volunteer chairs, Miriam Bell, Marie Kaufman and Dana Schwartz, were instrumental in organizing the event. — Rachel Brand, Contributing Writer
Israeli Singer Convicted of Bigamy
Singer and composer Matti Caspi, one of the dominant forces in Israeli popular music over the past 30 years, was convicted of bigamy last week in a Tel Aviv magistrate’s court.
The convoluted case, which has been dragging through the Israeli courts and media for 12 years, also involved Los Angeles Rabbi Gabriel Cohen in a controversial role.
In 1990, Caspi filed in the Tel Aviv rabbinical court for divorce from his wife of 15 years, Doreen, and the mother of his two children. As the divorce proceedings grew increasingly bitter and public, Caspi moved to Los Angeles with his girlfriend, Rachel Wenger.
While Caspi was living in Los Angeles, Cohen granted him a divorce in 1994, and Caspi subsequently married Wenger in a civil ceremony. The couple has two daughters.
In his ruling in Tel Aviv, Judge Daniel Be’eri castigated Cohen and said he believes administrative steps should be taken by the rabbinical court against Cohen for granting Caspi a divorce.
However, in a phone interview, Cohen defended himself by saying that prior to granting the divorce, he had spent almost a year trying to get a ruling from the Tel Aviv rabbinical court.
Cohen then granted the divorce, after which Caspi’s attorney asked for a ruling from the chief rabbinical court in Jerusalem, which, according to Cohen, confirmed the validity of the divorce.
In any case, Cohen maintained, no secular court, whether in Israel or the United States, could overturn a divorce decree granted by rabbinical authority.
Cohen is the rabbi of Congregation Bais Naftali on La Brea Avenue. He emphasized that he did not even know that Caspi was a celebrity at the time the singer contacted him. “I helped Caspi as I would any other Jew,” Cohen said.
Caspi’s sentencing hearing is to take place in about a month. Although under Israeli law, Caspi could receive a five-year prison sentence, he may be sentenced to three years or less, in accordance with California law. — Tom Tugend, Contributing Editor
Grants for Young Entrepreneurs
Applications for 2003 Joshua Venture Fellowship Grants are now being accepted and due by April 1, 2002. Eight $60,000, two-year grants will go to “social entrepreneurs” with project proposals for Jewish revival projects, strengthening Jewish identity and activism.
Applicants must be between the ages of 21 to 35 and demonstrate a track record of entrepreneurial leadership. For more information or to submit a proposal, visit www.joshuaventure.org or call (415) 929-4989. — Mike Levy, Staff Writer
LAUSD Quran Controversy Resolved
A controversy over anti-Semitic references in a translation of the Quran sent to Los Angeles public schools has been resolved to the apparent satisfaction of both Jewish and Muslim community representatives.
At a meeting Feb. 11, called by the Los Angeles Unified School District, participants agreed to permanently withdraw “The Meaning of the Holy Quran” from school libraries and to appoint a committee to review future books explaining different religious faiths.
The book that triggered the flap, a 1934 translation of the Quran with footnotes and commentaries, described Jews at various points as “illiterate,” “arrogant” and “men without faith.”
Some 300 copies had been donated last month by the Omar Ibn Khattab Foundation to the school district and were distributed without the customary content review to middle and high schools.
After a history teacher complained about the anti-Semitic references, the book was withdrawn form school libraries.
Dafer Dakhil, head of the Islamic foundation, apologized for the anti-Jewish commentaries at the closed-door meeting and agreed to the book’s withdrawal, according to one participant, Michael Hirschfeld, executive director of The Jewish Federation’s Jewish Community Relations Committee.
“We had a very cordial meeting and there was general agreement that the Omar Ibn Khattab Foundation had donated the Quran translations without any malicious intent,” Hirschfeld said in a phone interview.
Also participating in the meeting was Marjorie Green, western states education director for the Anti-Defamation League.
On the Muslim side, representatives included Salam Al-Marayati and Dr. Maher Hathout, two leading spokesmen of their community.
The cordiality of the meeting was taken as a sign of reduced friction between Southern California’s large Jewish and Muslim communities, which had been on the rise over the past year. ” — TT
Echoes of History
Ecclesiastes was right: Even in a world clouded by international terrorism, there’s nothing new under the sun.
Since Sept. 11, I’ve taken comfort, however small, in the echoes of history. The attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, with an estimated 6,300 dead, using American planes hijacked by foreign nationals, is unprecedented and horrific. Yet insisting on the uniqueness of its means and ends is debilitating. I look to the past, if only to save my sanity.
Spiritually, the destruction of the World Trade Center carries me back to the destruction of the First and Second Temples in Jerusalem. I understand as never before what it meant to a devastated people to see a tattered icon of civilization. And I think I understand now the greatness of a people who hallowed the use of tragic memory, transforming grief into a tool of survival.
In the candlelight vigils at Ground Zero, Americans are constructing a modern Western Wall, a living monument to infamy. Countless Jews throughout time have returned fortified merely from touching a remnant of brick of the old Temple, where sacrifices were only animal, not human. For the last two weeks Americans have also been in a kind of exile, separated from a way of life and security, perhaps never to return.
Jews turned their own Diaspora into an asset: holy space revived them in times of trial, and so it does for Americans too. President Bush appeared transformed, focused and fortified after standing near the gaping hole in the center of New York. I’ll go to the site when I visit the city next week. Inevitably, so will you.
In the instantaneous commemoration of Sept. 11, Americans are creating the equivalent of Tisha B’Av, the day of national Jewish mourning for the destroyed Temples. This ennobled day will provide a link, what historian Yosef Yerushalmi calls the "historical symmetry," between pain of past and present. In this way we are creating holy time, reminding us of who and what we are.
The past also teaches that the need for a scapegoat is not new. Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson are not the first to blame a national tragedy on innocent victims: Didn’t our own Isaiah blame the fall of the Jewish kingdom on intermarriage? That’s oddly comforting, today.
Politically, history provides precedent as well.
On July 19, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak appeared before the Washington Institute for Near East Policy warning that terrorism "is going to become a major challenge for this country, as well as for Europe." He urged world leaders to look back 300 years for a solution, when nations acted to end piracy.
"The only way, to the best of my judgment, to deal with this worldwide web of terror," Barak said, "is to stand firm and to treat them the same way that our ancestors used to deal with the piracy of the high seas; namely, to fully coordinate operational, intelligence and diplomatic efforts; not let them land at any port, or airport, for that matter; and immediately isolate them from the family of normal, benign nations."
For those who link piracy with "Peter Pan" or "The Princess Bride," let truth shatter a romantic illusion.
Like terrorists of our own day hijacking aircraft, pirates held the ships of the world hostage for nearly 800 years. And like contemporary terrorists, religion was sometimes its accomplice and its victim.
Piracy dates back to ancient Greece and Rome, with its high point being the Crusades (ending 1291) when Muslim pirates stopped Christian Crusaders and pilgrims heading for the Holy Land. Later, during the 16th century, Hapsburg Spain and the Ottoman Turks were pitted in a political battle for control of commerce on the Mediterranean; the battle between Christians and Muslims was subsumed in this turf war.
By the end of the 18th century, the religious factor declined, but the four so-called Barbary States of North Africa existed on the payment of bribes, called tributes, by trading companies and nations.
Then came America. U.S. merchant ships, no longer protected by Britain, were seized by Barbary pirates. Our sailors were taken into slavery. Though the new nation initially paid $18,000 in tribute, by 1801 the U.S. government refused the increasing blackmail demanded by the nation of Tripoli. Tripoli declared war on the United States. It was the World Trade Center attack of the time.
You can see where I’m heading, right to the lyrics of the Marine Corps hymn. The Marines won the initial battle on the shores of Tripoli in 1805, soon after what British Admiral Nelson called "the most daring act of the age," a raid to capture the frigate Philadelphia. By 1815, after the Napoleonic wars, European nations refused to pay tribute. America, standing up to terrorism, led the way.
Like Ehud Barak, I’m hoping world leaders are catching up on their history. .
Men and Martyrs
The ghost of Yitzhak Rabin speaks to Ehud Barak, and the message isn’t pretty. Ehud, one old soldier tells another, they never really miss you till you’re gone.
Will it take, God forbid, another assassination for American Jews to appreciate Ehud Barak? Will the man now being reviled as a traitor, a sell-out, a bumbler, be mourned as a hero, a risk-taker, a visionary? Must our leaders be cold before we warm up to them?
Barak, now Israel’s caretaker prime minister, looks to be heading for defeat in the Feb. 6 election contest with Ariel Sharon. And instead of lauding his efforts at the negotiating table, American Jews are silent or speaking out against him. In an opinion piece in last Tuesday’s Los Angeles Times, Rabbi Marvin Hier, dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, took Barak to task for entertaining President Bill Clinton’s proposals for shared Palestinian and Israeli sovereignty over the Temple Mount.
Even Ronald Lauder, viewed by many as the de facto leader of American Jewry in his role as chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, spoke briefly at the rally Monday outside of Jerusalem’s Old City that was widely perceived as an anti-Barak gathering.
Rabin earned a place in the Jewish pantheon by reaching out to Israel’s enemies in pursuit of peace. Barak took up Rabin’s mantle, wrestling with the hard, horrible compromises that peace would entail. He was willing to make them, provided his partner in peace would meet him halfway.
Yasser Arafat waffled, then pulled back, preferring to enshrine his legacy as a blood-soaked revolutionary and consign future generations of Palestinians to misery. This doesn’t mean that Oslo failed, just that Arafat did. The step-by-step process developed in Oslo enabled a courageous Israeli leader, such as Barak, to test his partner’s resolve and proceed accordingly. Leaders like Lauder and Hier should be raising up Barak as an example of Israel’s readiness for peace, instead of implicitly running him down as a threat to a united Jerusalem.
When tyro-Israelites like George Will in Newsweek trash Barak, Jewish leaders should respond that Israel’s most decorated soldier is negotiating to protect his country’s security. For Rabin, that was the point of Oslo: not to ensure Palestinian rights, or even to extend Israel’s sovereignty to every piece of land it is biblically entitled to, but to trade the gains of war for a secure peace.
It is chutzpah for American Jewish leaders to demand a determinative role in negotiations over Jerusalem. Israel is a sovereign state, not a Jewish organization. In the Six-Day War, 1,756 Israeli soldiers died to capture the Old City. Then-Prime Minister Levi Eshkol didn’t ask for American Jewish advice — or volunteers.
Ehud Barak has tenaciously refused to stop exploring all his negotiating options until he leaves office. It is because of his determination that Clinton could with a clear conscience tell the world that Palestinians, not Israelis, are “in the grip of forces … that have not permitted them” to make peace. Barak has soldiered on despite the fact that inside and outside of Israel his detractors are fomenting the kind of hate-filled atmosphere that preceded the murder of Rabin by a Jewish extremist, and despite the fact that those who should know better are doing little to dilute the venom.
Perhaps Barak could have finessed the talks better. Perhaps he didn’t realize how readily an outspoken minority of American Jews would sacrifice Israeli blood to protect their Holy Land. Perhaps he didn’t know that some leaders don’t understand what real leadership is until it’s too late.