Torah portion: Law and order Jewish style


The first sentence of this week’s Torah portion says it all: “Judges and [law-enforcement] officers shall you establish for [yourselves] within all your borders.” Judges to interpret and oversee righteous application of the law. Law-enforcement officers — cops — to keep the peace and enforce the order.

There is so much more to the Torah beyond the important laws regarding birds one is forbidden to eat, acts forbidden on Shabbat and the particular agricultural species that one is bidden to take in hand on Sukkot. Beyond all that, there are laws of ethics and morality, civil reward and civil punishment, and practical laws governing every aspect of real life. 

Anyone with more than network TV probably knows about the ubiquitousness of the program “Law & Order.” One or another iteration of that episodic series always seems to be on, and, reflecting real life, that subject matter is the Torah’s theme this week.

In many ways, the recent tragedy in Ferguson, Mo., brought home what happens when law and order break down. After a Caucasian police officer shot an African-American youth to death under highly controversial circumstances, suggesting to a distrusting local community that the killing was racially motivated, Ferguson suddenly became a place where law enforcement temporarily lost the legitimacy it requires to enforce. Once the police had been neutralized, invalidated by a long-suspicious populace, chaos reigned. There were riots, Molotov cocktails hurled along public city streets, bullets fired indiscriminately. Thugs streamed in from other states to join in and propel the riots. Utter chaos. Next came the Highway Patrol, and, finally, the National Guard.

For many of us in Los Angeles to relate, all we have to do is hearken to the Rodney King riots of 1992. Parts of the city were in virtual insurrection. Infamously, a Caucasian truck driver, Reginald Denny, while mundanely waiting in his vehicle for a red light to turn green at the corner of Florence and Normandie avenues, suddenly was yanked out of his car and was beaten to a pulp by rioters. In short order, the California National Guard was called in to quell the storm, and, ultimately, Marines were called to take back the streets. 

The Torah tells us that laws are purposeless without enforcement. We need cops. Laws and their enforcement are so essential to the Torah sense of civilized society that, of only seven laws for which Torah jurisprudence holds non-Jews accountable, one of them is the obligation to establish courts and law enforcement in their societies, too. So — along with their obligations not to steal and not to kill, for example, non-Jews are held accountable for anarchy resulting from failing to establish and assign enforcement power to courts.

Still, if there are to be judges and officers, then the Torah imposes on them the obligation to act ethically and thereby to maintain their legitimacy. “And they shall judge the people with righteous judgment.” “Do not pervert justice. Do not [show partiality]. Do not accept a bribe because a bribe blinds eyes [even of] wise people and corrupts words of the righteous. Justice, justice shall you pursue, so that you may live and inherit the land that God is giving you” (Deuteronomy 16:18-20).

This week’s Torah portion continues with these themes throughout. In a dispute before the courts, there must be a thorough and complete investigation before punishment may be meted out or someone may be prosecuted. When the judges do hand down a ruling, their holding must be accepted, and law officers must be in the society to enforce the judgments. 

Indeed, we see in the contemporary Mideast how Israel has been affected by living alongside polities that celebrate some who have murdered babies and that name boulevards for others who have bombed non-combatant Jewish men, women and children. Where a society tolerates the utter breakdown of law, the social breakdown never stops with Jewish victims. We Jews ever are the world’s canaries in the coalmine. 

Today it may be three Jewish teens en route home for Shabbat, or two Israeli truck drivers who make a wrong turn and end up slaughtered in Ramallah with thugs and cutthroats boastfully holding their bloodied hands out the window for all to see. However, soon enough churches start burning in Alexandria, Christians face crucifixion in Aleppo, and tens of thousands of Christians flee Mosul fearing beheading. Yazidis are slaughtered, their women raped and enslaved, and an entire region erupts in flames. It all begins with society abetting the breakdown of law and order.

For us, this week’s Torah portion bears a clear message: “dina d’malkhuta dina” (the law of the land is the law). Long before the 17th-century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes wrote about the topic in “Leviathan,” this portion taught that society can devolve into a jungle, and we all therefore must accept the foundation of our society’s laws if they have been legislated with any measure approximating some fairness. Beyond that, we must respect the police, those assigned to uphold the law. And when the law or the officer is patently wrong, we may fight that injustice with all our energy — but within the procedures established by the law. 

Rabbi Dov Fischer, a legal consultant and an adjunct professor of law, is a longtime member of the national executive committee of the Rabbinical Council of America and rav of Young Israel of Orange County. His website is rabbidov.com.

Back to School: Parashat Shoftim (Deuteronomy 16:18-21:9)


With a new school year upon us, I found the following story, “What Teachers Make,” revealing.

“The dinner guests were sitting around the table discussing life. One man, a CEO, decided to discuss the current problems with education. He argued, ‘What’s a kid going to learn from someone who decided his best option in life was to become a teacher?’

“He reminded the other dinner guests what people say about teachers: ‘Those who can, do. Those who can’t, teach.’

“To stress his point, he said to another guest: ‘You’re a teacher, Susan. Be honest. What do you make?’ Susan, who had a reputation for honesty and frankness replied, ‘You want to know what I make? I make kids work harder than they ever thought they could. I make kids wonder. I make them question. I make them criticize. I make them apologize and mean it. I make them write. I make them read, read, read. I make them show all their work in math and perfect their final drafts in English. I make them understand that if you have the brains and follow your heart, you will succeed; and if someone ever tries to judge you by what you make, you must pay no attention because they just didn’t learn.’ Susan paused and then continued, ‘You want to know what I make? I make a difference. What do you make?’ ”

Susan, I’m sure, could make each of us wonder, “What difference do we want to make?”

An answer to this pressing question is found in this week’s Torah reading. The Torah declares, “You shall be wholehearted with Hashem, your God” (Deuteronomy 18:13). This statement has always been so essential to Judaism that Maimonides argued that it is an overriding principle and not a specific mitzvah, therefore he did not include it in his enumeration of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. 

Whether Maimonides’ interpretation is correct or not, what is fascinating is the context in which this verse is found. This statement is part of the prohibition that a Jew may not use divination, read omens or frequent a sorcerer in order to find out what the future holds.

So what does “you shall be wholehearted with your God” have to do with prohibiting divination? The answer is a lesson for us and for our children.

The Talmud, in tractate Shabbat 156a, declares, “Celestial signs hold no sway over Israel.” The Talmud, however, wonders if astrologers really are able to tell the future. According to the Talmud it would appear that they indeed do have such powers. But do they have the final word? The answer is absolutely “no.”

If one leaves his destiny in the hands of someone such as a fortune-teller, the Torah understood that a person would achieve nothing in life. One will always have an excuse that he or she can use for all mistakes. “I was doomed from the outset,” someone could argue.

Being “wholehearted,” as the Torah commands, is the opposite of relying on the sorcerer, because when one is wholehearted he has achieved on his own. Outside forces aren’t the determiners. This is exactly what the Prophet Jeremiah wrote in the third chapter of Lamentations. At first he blames God for the destruction of the Holy Temple. He declares, “I am the man who has seen affliction by the rod of His wrath” (Lamentations 3:1). Who should we blame? It isn’t our fault but God’s wrath. But as he contemplates that charge, he begins to change his mind and says: “By the command of the Most High, neither good nor evil come” (Lamentations 3:38). And finally, Jeremiah concludes, “Let us search and examine our ways, and let us return to the Lord” (Lamentations 3:40).

What a lesson this is for all of us, but in particular for our children. We want them to use their own talents and not to give excuses if they fail. We want them to be able to rebound on their own and not to depend on any crutch that will only hinder their growth.

So, what should we tell our children as they begin a new school year? Perhaps something like this: “Be yourself, and achieve your best, but only achieve it ethically and morally. Never offer excuses if you don’t succeed, for that will never allow you to grow. Rather, know that we are proud of you, and if you try hard enough we know that you will achieve your goal.”

For the Kids


Trees are Terrific

This week’s portion, Shoftim, talks all about trees. In one very important paragraph, we learn that we are never to cut down fruit trees, even when it is a time of war and the fruit trees belong to the enemy. God says: You are not going to war against the trees.

This passage teaches us something about the Jewish attitude toward nature. We must not destroy or waste the beautiful gifts that God has planted on this Earth. The name of this commandment is: bal tashchit (do not destroy or waste). It doesn’t just refer to fruit trees. It also means don’t trample the flowers in your Dad’s garden, turn the light off when you walk out of the room and throw your garbage in the trash and not into the ocean. Can you do that?